Despite all of the flashy magazines, fad diets and news articles, current recommendations from the Institute of Medicine suggest you choose a diet containing 45-65% of your daily calories from carbohydrates, 10-35% from protein and 20-35% from fat. You should consume less than 10% of your total calories from saturated fat, less than 1% from trans fats and less than 300 milligrams of cholesterol daily.
Fat provides a feeling of fullness, calories, vitamins and nutrients that the body needs to survive. The amount of fat you eat is important because fat matters but calories count. If something is fat free that does not necessarily mean that it has any fewer calories than regular fat foods. Fat-free does not mean that you can eat unlimited amounts of the food. Any extra calories in your diet will cause weight gain and so if you are trying to maintain your weight; your calorie intake needs to equal the calories expenditure. Fats are categorized into two types, saturated and unsaturated. Saturated fats are the most unhealthful and are associated with increased levels of cholesterol. Saturated fats are what we call solid fats, meaning they are solid at room temperature. They are usually from animal sources such as meat, butter and cheese. Some vegetarian sources of saturated fat are coconut and palm kernal. Consuming a diet high in saturated fat will increase your LDL or “bad” cholesterol and also your risk for heart disease.
Another type of fat is unhealthy fat is called trans fat. Trans fat is an unusual type of unsaturated fatty acid that is similar in shape to a saturated fatty acid. It naturally occurs in dairy and beef. It is also produced when manufacturers hydrogenate or add hydrogen to an oil to make it more spreadable, solid or more shelf-stable. Items like stick varieties of margarine, baked goods, commercially prepared foods and fast foods contain up to 50% of their fat from trans fat. Eating high amounts of trans fat can raise your LDL cholesterol and decrease you HDL or “good” cholesterol. It also produces inflammation and may increase your risk for heart disease.
Foods High in Trans Fat
- Bake goods and fast foods
- Vegetable shortening
- Animal products
Cholesterol is an important substance which can be made by our bodies and is not an “essential” nutrient. It is present in foods of animal origin only, meaning there is no cholesterol in plants. Cholesterol forms the major parts of plaques that narrow arteries in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of arteries and is the underlying cause of strokes and heart attacks. The National Cholesterol Education Program advises for a consumption of 300 milligrams or less of cholesterol per day. Cutting back on meat and animal products is a good way to decrease your intake of cholesterol and saturated fats. It is important to know that foods high in saturated fat and trans fat raise cholesterol more so than food cholesterol does.
- 3 oz of top sirloin steak trimmed to ¼” fat = 84 mg of cholesterol
- 3 oz of light turkey meat = 51 mg of cholesterol
- 1 cup whole milk = 24 mg of cholesterol
Fat free foods have become so popular, but a diet too low in fat is unhealthy. Monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids are “good” fats and can help to promote a healthy heart. Monounsaturated fats contain one unsaturated bond while polyunsaturated fats contain more than one unsaturated bond. These fats help increase the HDL or “good” cholesterol and lower the LDL cholesterol in our blood.
There are two polyunsaturated fats that are considered essential in the diet, Linoleic Acid and Linolenic Acid. These are fats that cannot be synthesized by our body and so we must get them from the food we eat. They are used to make Eicosanoids that help regulate many bodily functions. Linoleic acid is an omega 6 fatty acid and it should make up 5-10% of your total calories. That would be approximately 17 grams per day for men and 12 grams per day for women. It is found in food such as
- Seeds and Nuts
- Vegetable Oils (corn, cottonseed, safflower, sunflower, sesame, soybeans)
Linolenic acid is an omega 3 fatty acid and should make up 0.6-1.2% of your total calories. Men should consume about 1.6 grams per day and women 1.1 grams per day. It is found in foods such as
- Oils (canola, flaxseed, soybean, walnut, wheat germ)
- Nuts (walnuts, butternuts)
- Seeds (flaxseed, soybeans)
Excessive amounts of either omega 3 or omega 6 fatty acids can interfere with normal functions that depend on a proper balance between the two.
- Nonfat milk has 0 grams of fat and is a 90 calories per 8 oz serving.
- Whole fat milk has 8 grams of fat (5 g of saturated fat) and 150 calories per 8 oz serving.
- A small croissant contains 12 g of fat (7 g of saturated fat) and 260 calories.
- 1 measure tablespoon of fat provides 10 grams of fat or about 120 calories.
- Cheeses are the single greatest contribute of saturated fat in the diet.
The Bottom Line
Choose unsaturated fats when cooking. Limit trans fat intake to less than 1% of your calorie intake. Limit Saturated fat intake to less than 7% of your daily calories
This guest post was written by Debra Wein, MS, RD, NSCA-CPT, CWPD, a nationally recognized expert on health and wellness. She has nearly 20 years of experience working in the health and wellness industry and has designed award winning programs for both individuals and corporations across the country. She is president and founder of Wellness Workdays, a leading provider of worksite wellness programs, and president and co-founder of Sensible Nutrition, Inc., a consulting firm that provides nutrition and wellness services to individuals. Debra is also the Program Director of the Wellness Workdays Dietetic Internship, the only worksite wellness focused internship for dietetics students interested in becoming Registered Dietitians that is approved by the Accreditation Council for Education in Nutrition and Dietetics (ACEND). Debra helped to formulate and design KOKO’s current nutrition program.